General Articles

The below articles are within the general studies of paranormal or do not yet have their own classifications. All articles are the sole proprietorship of their respected author and may not necessarily reflect the views of TAPS or any of its members.

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A Dark Matter Model of Consciousness - by Richard Ruquist PhD

This is the second paper in this series. You can find the first one HERE.
An axion condensate,
a likely constituent of Dark Matter,
may be the medium of non-local consciousness,
and may as well be the ‘pilot wave’ medium of Bohm Theory

In this paper, the principal message is the medium, not the model. However, having presented the argument for consciousness embedded in Dark Matter, we mention its consistency with a model of consciousness presented at this conference (QM2003) and also discuss two relevant models from the internet.

1. BEC media posited for consciousness
Assuming a material world, the non-local properties of consciousness (see below) suggest that it must exist in a macroscopic coherent quantum medium, called a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) that is meters in extent and perhaps global. Known BECs such as super-fluids and superconductors only exist near absolute zero. To explain consciousness the BEC medium must exist at room temperature.

The presumption of a BEC medium to explain our visible, waking or physical consciousness underlies both the early Frolich/Marshall (where the medium is a coherent field of membrane dipoles) and the more recent Penrose/Hameroff microtubule-medium model. Both models require metabolic excitation to a state of thermodynamic non-equilibrium (see Hagan, QM2003), consistent with a physical consciousness that can turn off and turn on, as in sleeping and waking.

Some such model is perhaps the best explanation of waking consciousness. However, such models are local in nature, confined to the human brain and probably even microscopic aspects of the brain. Because of the non-local nature of some forms of consciousness, another medium is needed, one that might even explain consciousness in the sleep state. A secondary medium would also serve to integrate the perhaps microscopic processes of physical consciousness.

Quoting Piero Scaruffi from his site
“The fascination with Bose-Einstein condensates is that they are the most highly ordered structures in nature (before their discovery by Albert Einstein and Satyendranath Bose, that record was owned by crystals). The order is such that each of their constituents appears to occupy all their space and all their time: for all purposes the constituents of a Bose-Einstein condensate share the same identity. In other words, the constituents behave just like one constituent (the photons of a laser beam behave just like one photon) and the Bose-Einstein condensate behaves like one single particle. Another odd feature of Bose-Einstein condensates is that they seem to possess a primitive form of free will.”-

2. Evidence for non-local consciousness
A host of experiments reported at this conference (QM2003) verify the existence of some form of non-local consciousness, at least out to ten meters. Separate papers by Standish, Germine, Thaheld, Richards, Kozak and Wackermann (lead authors) report (i) EEG and MRI correlations in the brain of a human receiver with the (ii) visual stimulus of an isolated sender some ten meters away. We say that this form of consciousness is invisible as the receiver is not aware of the sender or the sender’s transmissions. Neither is the sender aware of what is being transmitted.

Wallach and Bell separately report placebo effects in control groups that they explain as non-local consciousness. Lake, Vekaria and Hurtak separately report human healing at a distance, and Agadjamian reports adaptation of insects to promote survival that he attributes to non-local consciousness. Concurrent Session VI is devoted to a discussion of Non-locality. Many of the presentations at this conference claim that non-local consciousness can only be understood as a form of EPR entanglement indicating a BEC medium outside the human body, as well as in it.

Suggestive of plant consciousness as well as non-local consciousness, Chouinard at this conference reports micron plant movements from distant human intention, and Schwartz reports enhanced seed germination from human intention. In addition, Aranbura reports effects on electromechanical devices. It seems that the receiver need only be electrical in nature. That supports anecdotal evidence that some humans can will lights to turn off. It seems that the BEC medium must be able to interact actively with physical media, rather than just being a passive reflection of it.

3. Subjective evidence for non-local visible consciousness
Less rigorous, but with greater implications than the above experiments, are the reports by Lommel, and also Britten, of Near Death Experiences (NDE) of patients surviving cardiac arrest. One of five of the surviving patients had NDEs. The most common NDE involved an Out-of-Body Experience(OBE) where the patient observes (i.e. visible consciousness) doctors working on his or her body from a distance. Also the patient often obtains a life review of some sort. Less often the patient reports conversation with deceased loved ones or a preview of the future during NDE. If true, this means that consciousness in the secondary medium can be visible and that it may contain a storage of information as well as intelligent beings.

One might think that OBE data would be instructive and conclusive regarding the need for a nonphysical medium. However, most of the data are anecdotal. A small amount of rather inconclusive OBE data is discussed by Charles Tart on the site, which however contains an extensive bibliography of OBE literature. A significant omission in this bibliography is the work of Brazilian physician Waldo Vieira at the International Instiute of Projectology, reviewed on
The site discusses the origins of ghosts and how to heal them; and refers to descriptions of 60 OBEs.

The subject of ghosts is rarely discussed as a form of non-local consciousness as it is seemingly too controversial and at least very subjective. However, they are a common experience for many. Sonny Ayran presents a rather complete description of the various manifestations of ghosts on the internet site:

He describes ghost manifestations as basically orbs (one inch diameter spheres containing a central matrix and two outer layers), with less frequent sensings as vortices, mists, apparitions, audio ghost recordings, odors, cold chills and touching. He points out that ghosts must absorb physical energy [or at least excite physical particles] requiring active coupling mechanisms to be detectable in the physical realm, as they are with IR photography.

4. Remote Viewing, a form of non-local consciousness
Although not really covered in this conference, it seems that some of the best evidence in support of a nonphysical consciousness is found in experimental investigations of mind-based Remote Viewing (also called remote perception or anomalous cognition). The experiments conducted at Stanford Research Institute (see Putoff and Targ, Proc IEEE 64,1976) and later at SAIC, were funded by the CIA and DIA in response to similar work in the USSR.

Remote Viewing has gone mainstream with the 27 January 2003 US News & World Report article on CIA spying. The US News article reports that funding was forthwith after two separate human receivers, given latitude and longitude of an USSR site, described an arrangement of buildings that was later confirmed by spy photography. In the subsequent research, rigorous scientific protocol was used and the results were positive, leading to medals of honor for a few well trained experts. This suggests that the BEC medium is global in extent.

As an aside, Remote Viewing (RV) is not the same as OBE. In RV the subject remains awake and very attentive to some remote object. The images obtained are shadowy and not easily recognized, being reflective of an internal structure; and the claim is that anyone can be trained to perform RV. OBE, on the other hand, is an altered state of consciousness in which the subject appears to be unconscious (asleep), but the subject himself or herself feels awake, separated from his or her own body, and able to travel elsewhere. In this state, the environment appears distinct and external surfaces are seen rather than internal structure. In both cases the subject experiences visible consciousness.

5. Galactic distributions of Dark Matter
Dark matter has been indirectly detected from astronomical observations. Analysis using Newton’s gravitational theory of the motion of stars, galaxies and galactic clusters, and also analysis using Einstein’s theory of the bending of light around these collections of stars, all indicate that the amount of dark matter (matter that is invisible for our telescopes) is at least 10 times the mass of the visible (star-like) matter in the universe. Presently it seems clear that Dark Matter has the same large-scale distribution as galactic clusters and super-clusters, except that the Dark Matter ‘halos’ extend somewhat beyond the visible galaxy and often overlaps several galaxies. Dark Matter ‘halos’ are usually but not necessarily spherical. The exact shape of galactic Halos is being actively researched. For example, the Milky Way Halo appears to incorporate its satellite galaxies.

The candidate constituents of dark matter are: axions, wimps, neutrinos, black holes, brown dwarfs and large planets. No single candidate has sufficient mass except possibly axions or wimps, neither of which has been as yet detected; whereas the other candidates are known to exist. Wimps (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are theoretically predicted in the super-symmetric theories. Axions are predicted in the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) and are thought to be the reason why neutron electric dipole moments are zero.

6. Cosmic Axions
Cosmic Axions were generated in the Big Bang. They differ from all other Dark Matter candidates in that they were (presumably) created in primordial symmetry breaking processes. All the other candidates were created in thermal processes and have thermal velocities, including the thermal axions presently being created in the sun. Cosmic axions are then unique in that they essentially are fixed in space. They seemingly have no inherent initial motion or momentum. They are at or very close to the temperature of absolute zero.

They are therefore referred to as cold dark matter and are often called the cosmic axion field, a coherent Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) that surrounds and permeates galaxies. Superconductors and superfluids like Helium at near absolute zero are also BECs. At these temperatures electron or atom wave functions have macroscopic (millimeter+) extension. As wave function extent depends inversely on the mass of the particle, and the mass of an axion is one billionth that of an electron, the axion wave function extends well beyond the earth. The axion fluid must then be a BEC at room temperatures, and perhaps even at solar temperatures. If the scaling to infinitesimal mass holds up, thermal as well as cosmic axions behave coherently over global scales.

Yet they are extremely numerous. If they are a major constituent of dark matter, there must be more than a 10 trillion axions for every proton and neutron in the universe. If the symmetry breaking process produced cosmic axions before matter and anti-matter recombined, then the number of axions is comparable to the number of photons in the universe.

According to physicist John Cramer, "Axions have a geometrical resemblance to an electric and a magnetic field oriented parallel to each other. In theory, this property can be exploited to convert axions into photons (radio/light/gamma-rays) throughthe use of intense electric and/or magnetic fields. If cosmic axions were converted to photons, their estimated mass-energy would make electromagnetic microwaves like those used in home microwave ovens.”

7. A Mathematical Theory of (Axion) Consciousness
A theory of consciousness, proposed by Russian researcher Boris Iskatov is discussed on He derived a mathematical quantum theory (from transformations of the Dirac and Schroedinger equations) of an information-energy field Y residing in a “global gas of micro-leptons” having several levels of particle masses between 10^-40 and 10^-30 grams. Axions predicted by GUT are about 10^-5 eV or 2x10^-38 grams, so that it is likely that microleptons are actually the axions of dark matter. The equations are copied here from the above site for the sake of completeness.

A Y=0; A' Y'=0;

where the operators have the form:

A=2h^2V + i2h d/d t-U; A'=2h^2V - i2h d/d t-U.

Here: Y denotes the probability density wave (the wave function); V, the Laplace operator; U, the potential energy density; and h, Planck's constant.

The equations of this theory can be solved to obtain the quantum hologram. Some rather exotic solutions are also claimed. Strong signals in this medium travel at the speed of light. But weak pre- and post-signals can travel much faster than the speed of light, and there are also so-called (very weak) anti-signals that allow for the investigation of the past. We expect that the weak signals are due to BEC effects and the strong signals relate to physical particles. Coupling to the physical world is not discussed.
The experimental work of Russian Anatoly Ohatim is also reviewed on the above site. He claims to confirm the existence of the microlepton gas experimentally using an instrument, the aurometer, for measuring these effects. He suggests that all information produced by the material world is embedded in the microlepton gas. This includes human thoughts, which are said to be “propagated by the lightest particles”. This information exists in the form of holograms and comes in units called “eidoses”. Ohatim discusses such effects as the half-life of eidoses (holograms) based on particle mass. Particles with less mass have longer lifetimes. Ohatim also discusses how humans influence the cosmos from their generation of good or bad eidoses.

8. A Non-mathematical Model of Axion Consciousness
The only model that explicitly states that consciousness exists in an axion BEC residing in Dark Matter is by Father Jerome: To quote him:

” I do so identify the basic and necessary Particle of Universal Consciousness as being the Quantum Axion Particle, a microcosmically quantum unit of four predominantly differing "flavors": a Positive Particle of positive half-integer spin; a Negative Particle of negative half-integer spin; a Positive Particle of positive integer spin; and a Negative Particle of negative integer spin.”

Briefly the model of consciousness is that Cooper-pair layers of positive and negative half-spin axions couple to the “corporeal” physical brain on one (metaphorical) side, and to an “incorporeal” higher self or soul composed of half-spin axions on the other. The incorporeal layer is said by Jerome to be a living, sentient life-form. The actual coupling mechanism to the brain is also incorporeal, i.e. not chemical or electrical, consistent with Bohm theory below.

The above site is a rather interesting read. It presents a very extensive and self-consistent explanation of almost everything in human life: physics, neurophysics, psychology, sociology and theology. For example, ”Such a Cooper-pairing is the result of the incursion of negative consciousness “, which is described as a Jungian veil and attributed to Lucifer.

Much of the material presented is the result of what might be called ‘direct revelation’. Father Jerome claims a D.Sc. in Quantum Physics and a D.Th. in theology from a 40,000-year-old institution that is not of this world. His site material is a translation from the terminology used in that institution into modern scientific terms. To quote him, “Using existing and known textbook science and principles, QUFD presents a never-before-seen philosophical formulation and incorporeal (Spiritual) context for Albert Einstein's long-sought-after Unified Field Theory of the quantum forces.” QUFD (Quantum Unitary Field Dynamics) is his theory of Bose-Einstein Condensates. One reservation is that half-spin axions are not likely to exist except perhaps in Cooper-pairs.

9. Discussion
From the perspective of explaining both local and non-local human consciousness, the purpose of this conference, the essential ingredient missing from both the Iskatov’s theory (7) and Jerome’s model (8) is the coupling mechanism between an axion condensate and the human brain.

This missing ingredient is compounded by the fact that despite strong efforts the so-called axion particle has yet to be detected. Refer to the recent paper, written by just about every prominent theorist and experimentalist in axion research, which offers this conclusion:

“We report the first results of a high-sensitivity (10^{-23} Watt) search for light halo axions through their conversion to microwave photons. At 90 percent confidence we exclude a KSVZ axion of mass 2.9 x 10^{-6} eV to 3.3 x 10^{-6} eV as the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy.” Authors: C. Hagmann, D. Kinion, W. Stoeffl, K. van Bibber, E. Daw, H. Peng, Leslie J Rosenberg, J. LaVeigne, P. Sikivie, N. Sullivan, D. Tanner, F. Nezrick, Michael S. Turner, D. Moltz, J. Powell, and N. Golubev.

Note that the experiment covered a spread of axion mass outside of the spread indicated by Iskatov for micro-leptons. But more to the point, from the experimental and observational data presented at this conference, we must conclude that some sort of pervasive, global (at least) quantum coherent medium must exist, and the most likely candidate is an axion condensate. It would then appear that the next essential step is to determine coupling mechanisms between the condensate and the physical brain.

10. A Bohmian Model
Paavo Pylkkanen in the talk Consciousness and our concept of reality reviews Bohm pilot wave theory. An aspect of his talk directly relates to the coupling problem, e.g., “The problem of mental causation, or the problem of how could mental states (as non-physical states) possibly influence the course of physical processes without, for example, violating the energy conservation laws. Bohm and Hiley’s ontological interpretation of quantum theory suggests that an entirely new kind of energy operates in situations where quantum theory is required, an energy best understood as ‘active information’.”

In Bohm theory, see, this active information exists as ‘pilot waves’ (i.e. like wave functions). Fundamental particles such as electrons then react to pilot wave information. There is no wave/particle duality. They both exist at the same time and have definite locations in space and time. [For example, pilot waves solve the double slit paradox by instantly knowing what the environment is and then guiding the photon or electron through the proper slit. Experiments indicate that when information is extracted as to which slit the particle passes through, the interference pattern disappears, even if the information is extracted without the use of force.]

To a materialist, what seemingly is missing from this approach is the medium in which the ‘active information’ exists. I propose that pilot waves exist in the axion condensate of Dark Matter. Cosmic axions form global BECs that instantly react to all changes in the environment- just what Bohm calls for. The axion condensate provides the dynamic landscape that particles flow through.

As discussed by Bohm in the above link, each physical particle is sufficiently complex to extract information from the axion condensate as to where it should go. That seemingly solves the axion/brain coupling problem. But the question remains as to how the particles get propulsion to change course- perhaps also from their inherent complexity. If so, such particles can both sense the pilot waves and change the direction of their movement- a primitive form of free will.

As farfetched as that may seem, the reader is reminded that essentially the same thing must happen in the frictionless flow of electrons as Cooper-pairs through superconductors. Somehow the pairs move around the obstacle atoms. So either there are unknown forces in the BEC of the superconductor to guide dumb particles; or the fundamental particles are smart and can sense the environment and change direction without loss of energy.

This is a poster paper presented March 17, 2003 at Quantum Mind 2003 conference held at the University of Arizona in Tuscan, Arizona

Richard Ruquist, PhD
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The Yanniru Foundation
79 Rice Street
Cambridge, MA02140

Bring Batteries - By Grant Wilson

Bring Batteries!!

Well, this is a simple subject that still needs to be addressed.

Ask any experienced ghost hunter what you should bring on a ghost hunt and the first thing they'll tell you is...

Then, they'll say "Batteries, always bring extra batteries". Now most people would be thinking "Shouldn't I be bringing those guns from Ghosbusters or something?" Well, actually, the most practical thing is extra batteries (and of course whatever the item is that you are going to be using the batteries in.)

You're probably asking why EXTRA batteries? Well, something interesting tends to happen when you're chasing spooks...

You see, these ghosts take a lot of energy to manifest themselves either through sight, sound or touch. They can't make this energy, they need to gather it from somewhere in order to get your attention. So, why not target your convenently packaged power cells? And that's exactly what they do. In fact, after an intense night of hunting you'll tend to feel that even your very self is drained and extremely tired. This is due to the energy those ghosties have been pulling out of YOU all night long.

So, usually it's dark, and you'll be RELYING on that flashlight, right? Well, if you would like to see, then bring extra batteries. And if you plan on documenting any proof, your camera is instantly worthless as soon as the batteries run dry.

So, don't get cocky, just carry an extra set with you, because chances are, they WILL RUN OUT

-Grant (TAPS)

Changing the Parameters - by Michael Richie

Changing the Parameters

When wildlife photographers travel into the wild in an attempt to document their subjects, great care is taken to insure that the impact of their presence will be minimal upon the subject at hand.   This is due to some simple scientific principals. In short, no matter what precautions are taken, it cannot be guaranteed that one's presence will not affect the outcome of either the observation or experiment. One's simple proximity to the subject introduces a foreign variable into the equation.  

For example; according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, if particle A is on a known fixed trajectory, and particle B lies within the range of that trajectory, then B will have an effect upon A depending on its trajectory, velocity, and mass.   It is now very difficult to predict where particle A will be at a given time due to the intervention of B.

A simpler way of looking at it is the following; if you were out photographing tigers, you cannot be sure that they would be acting the same way if you were not present.   Your scent may have carried in an unexpected change of the wind, or the shutter of your camera may be louder then you anticipated, etc.

Now, we as a society tend to know quite a bit about tigers and particle theory (at least we think we do) and there is still that kind of room for uncertainty.   Now consider an area of science that is still in its most rudimentary stages of development, the paranormal.   When we as investigators enter a home that is allegedly haunted, we have no clue just how much our presence affects the haunting.   We don't know exactly just how far into our world the spirits can see. Some have personalities as well, and may respond accordingly.   Even the equipment that we bring may have an effect.  

If we as investigators do not capture any evidence in the short time that we are present, it does not mean that the case is not valid.   We will have no idea what our effect is upon a haunting until more evidence is gathered, and gathering untainted evidence is a big problem.   It is this reason, among others, why the pooling of information from credible groups over a period of time is the best way to find patterns in hauntings, alleged hauntings, and other natural phenomena.   Only then can hypotheses be studied and made into sound, scientific theory.

-Michael Richie (TAPS)

Children and Ghosts - by Jason Hawes

Children and Ghosts

Many times when I am contacted by someone having a Paranormal situation I am informed that their child or children are playing with invisible friends and that they talk to things that are not there. People want to understand why their children are doing this.

Are they psychic?
Maybe sensitive?

Yes and No, They are open.

To a child, anything is possible. Everything is real. Santa still comes down the chimney ever Christmas and the Easter Bunny still comes and brings them baskets every Easter. To a child, anything and everything is possible. They do see more then most for this fact. They have not been conditioned by society yet as to what is real and what is not. Over years they will be told, "Stop playing with your pretend friend Bobby" and this helps close them off to what they experience. We have done some investigations into this and the conclusions are outstanding.

On familys who have always believed in the idea that there are spirits and other things out there that we can not see. These people seem to be more accepting of their children playing with invisible friends and they do not try to change the child's ideas. It seems that more and more sensitives are being brought into this world by these people. They are being allowed to grow without being told what they saw as a child was not real so, in return being able to see these things as they did when they were children.

On the other side of this are the families who do not give their children a chance. They have a closed mind and they refuse to let the child be open. In return telling the child that they should not play with something or someone who is not really there.

"Billy stop playing with nothing"
"Tammy there is nothing there so stop it"

This is how the child stops believing in anything being possible. More sensitives come from families that have open minds then those who do not.

Have you helped your child become and open minded person or a close minded person?

Creating Sacred Space: The Power of Self Empowerment - Fran Ford

Creating Sacred Space: The Power of Self Empowerment

It was a dark and stormy night...

Seriously, the night was indeed dark, but it was clear and crisp, the air
filled with an early autumn chill.

Nine bleary-eyed people are sitting around a dining room table. Five of them
are members of TAPS and the other four are just a few of the members of a
family we have just spent hours with in hopes of bringing a peace back into
their lives that, according to them, has not been there since they had moved
here, into this house, ten years ago.

Sue, (not her real name) a wife and at home mother of five sons, tells TAPS
that she has not been able to bring herself to go up to the second floor of
the house after everyone has left for the day to their various jobs or
schools. She will stay only on the ground floor as going upstairs has become
too unnerving for her. Shadows at the baseboards and whispers in her ear,
cold spots and radios that turn on and off by themselves, keep her ground
floor bound.

But neither is the ground floor without its own bit of unsettling paranormal
activities. Their twenty-year-old parrot Gracie has suddenly and
mysteriously "taught herself" to cry like a baby. Any of you who know
parrots know that they are taught sounds and words by mimicking and can not
learn them on their own. The whole family has sworn that none of them have
taught Gracie this new talent. Sue claims that this "crying" that Gracie has
suddenly and inexplicably picked up out of nowhere is mournful and very sad.
"Like a child in pain and pure anguish". This is extremely difficult for
this mother of five to have to listen to.

The dining room in which we sit is simple yet tastefully decorated. Family
pictures surround us. And the pretty curtains on the windows give stark
contrast to the dull paint on the walls. The homeowners tell us these walls,
and all the walls of the house for that matter, have not seen a fresh coat
of paint in ten years, due to the fact that whatever has been residing with
them will not let them paint, wallpaper, renovate nor decorate any room in
the house without making its presence known by some kind of disturbance
which has been manifested in the form of anything from the smashing of
heirloom crystal to possibly even causing seemingly endless annoying
troubles to the family's numerous cars.

This room that we all sit in now at 3 a.m., the last room in the house that
has been sealed and blessed.

The investigation and documentation we have conducted has taken hours. The
blessing of each and every room, including attic and basement, has taken
hours more. We are now nearing the end of our stay; getting ready to pack up
our gear and begin heading home. My ride will only be a half hour tonight.
The rest of the crew lives in RI so their trip home will be a bit longer.

This is a crucial time of any case in which TAPS involves itself. Because
this is when we have to leave and the family we have just spent so much time
getting to know and help, are once more left alone and most times still
feeling vulnerable in their own home.

This is the time I choose to give what I have come to call "My Self
Empowerment Speech". I call it this because this is exactly what it
does-gives this frightened family the self empowerment tools needed to
continue keeping the peace and tranquility that TAPS has brought to their
home with our cleansing and blessing.

Usually I not only concentrate on the family's personal religious beliefs,
such as, if they are Christian, holy water and prayer... but I also utilize
and suggest to them some other tried and true methods of cleansing that have
been around for centuries and have not only stood the test of time but also
transcend civilization barriers and also geographic boundaries as well.
Meaning, simply that the methods I suggest people use keep harmony and peace
in a home are ancient and folkloric rituals of creating sacred space along
with some new tried and true methods added to the mix for not only good
measure, but also to help some people to accept the ancient more readily
than usual.

These methods include the burning of sage or incense such as Frankincense
and Myrrh. Candles burned often, especially white or blue ones. Those colors
signifying purity and healing energy. Placing the pictures of beloved family
members who have passed over, prominently about the house and asking their
energy to come and join you in helping to protect your home. Fill the home
with a white light by visualizing it filling each room and surrounding
everyone who enters. Fill the home with prayer, laughter, love and music.
Clean up clutter, negative energy loves clutter.

All of these things work together to change the vibration levels of a home
and those who reside in it, therefore making it less hospitable to negative
energy and those who live there less vulnerable to psychic attack by any
subversive entity. And if you keep up with it, the victims become like the
child in the playground who suddenly ignores his "bully". Making it likely
that the "bully", in this case an invasive and unwanted and possible even
hostile energy, will move on to someplace more "inviting."

Of course most of what I speak of here as cleansing methods are used at
times when a house is occupied by intelligent malevolent or negative energy.
But can always also be used to create and keep one's own "Sacred Space." No
matter how harmonious a home, it never hurts to "open a window and change
the air" from time to time.

One week after TAPS left the house and family I talk of here; I called on
the telephone to check up on them and spoke to Sue. I could hear her
enthusiasm and excitement over the phone and it was the kind of positive
excitement and enthusiasm that we at TAPS like to hear most. It made me
smile to hear her tell me that for the first time in nearly ten years that
she is able to go up to the second floor of her own home alone, morning,
noon, or night and feel nothing but peace and comfort. TAPS declared this
case closed.

If asked why these methods work, I get a look on my face that tells the one
questioning me that they need to sit tight because I have a lot to say. Many
things come to my mind as answers to this question. Depending on who is
asking will determine how deep I wish to go with the answer given.

To some I tell simply; the methods I use to help self empower others are
like the car that I drive. I drive a car; it is a vehicle that gets me where
I need to go. I am not a mechanic. I do not know the ins and outs as to what
makes a car go, just that it gets me where I need to go.

To others I may go very deep and begin talking about all energy and matter
vibrating at certain levels; a table or chair vibrate at much lower levels
that say a plant or dog or a person. And those human energies vibrate at
lower levels still than those we call spirits. And enlightened spirit energy
vibrates at levels higher than say subversive entity energy.

Either way, I explain it, it all comes down to a belief in one's own ability
to empower one's self to take control and change things that can be changed
in order to restore harmony in one's life. This includes a life being
invaded by energies we may not completely understand, yet we gain control
over if given the right tools to do so.


This lecture was given at the Rhine Research Center.

Dark Matter- by Richard Ruquist PhD

DARK MATTER A Materialistic Medium for the Paranormal

his is the first paper in this series. You can find the second one HERE.


For some years my intuition has been that religious, psychic and paranormal phenomena have a materialistic basis, including God by whatever definition you choose, and may some day be amenable to scientific analysis. That is, everything in the universe, both physical and spiritual, is monistic and materialistic, rather than philosophically dualistic. Physics has discovered a host of physical dualisms such as wave-particle duality and the various dualistic theories of superstring theory. But they are all part of monistic, materialistic science. True, waves (or fields, the same thing) are invisible and particles are visible, but both are physical.

What seemingly blocks a scientific analysis of the spiritual is that the waves/particles associated with the paranormal realm are undetectable by our present scientific equipment, except perhaps when entities in the spiritual realm excite or absorb particles from the physical realm, such as in the manifestation of ghosts. Human consciousness, however, may detect the paranormal, as explained below. The British Delawarr camera and Russian aurometer may be exceptions (also below), but mainstream science does not yet accept their data as valid. So for these years I have followed the advances in physics and astronomy hoping to find materialistic validation of religion and the paranormal. I now believe that the answer lies in the physics of Dark Matter, and perhaps Dark Energy as well.

Dark matter has been detected (indirectly) by astronomers using several different types of star observations. Analysis using Newton’s gravitational theory of the motion of stars, galaxies and galactic clusters, and analysis using Einstein’s theory of the bending of light around these collections of stars, all indicate that the amount of dark matter (matter that is invisible for our telescopes) is at least 10 times the mass of the visible (starlike) matter in the universe. The candidate constituents of dark matter are: axions, wimps, neutrinos, black holes, brown dwarfs and large planets. It seems that all have been ruled out except axions and wimps, neither of which have been as yet detected; whereas the other candidates are known to exist. Wimps are theoretically predicted in the supersymmetric theories; and axions are predicted in the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) and are thought to be the reason why neutron electric dipole moments are zero.

Cosmic axions differ from all other candidates in that they were (presumably) created in primordial symmetry breaking processes whereas all the other candidates were created in thermal processes and have thermal velocities. (We exclude thermal axions presently being created in the sun from this discussion). Cosmic axions are then unique in that they essentially are fixed in space. They have no inherent motion or momentum. As discussed below that makes them especially suitable to be the medium of religious, psychic and paranormal phenomena. They are therefore referred to as cold dark matter and are often called the cosmic axion field, a coherent Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) that surrounds and permeates galaxies. Superconductors and superfluids like Helium at near absolute zero are also BECs. You might say that the axions are at absolute zero as they are motionless. And they are extremely numerous. If they are a major constituent of dark matter, there must be more than a 10 trillion axions for every proton and neutron in the universe.

If the symmetry breaking process produced axions before matter and anti-matter recombined, then the number of axions is comparable to the number of photons in the universe, a fantastically large number, and we cannot detect them.

Dark energy is even more indirectly detected from supernovae observations. Certain supernovas that exploded some 10-12 billions of years ago are dimmer than expected, indicating that the universal expansion is accelerating. Coupled with Einstein’s theory, the data indicates (using the matter/energy equivalence) that there is twice as much dark energy as dark matter in the universe. This is further verified as the combined amounts of dark matter and energy makes the universe flat; and a number of other measurements also indicate that the universe is flat. This is a 3 dimensional flatness, such as to make plane (Euclidean) geometry correct for the universe. Otherwise the universe would be geometrically either spherical or hyperbolic.

Physicists essentially have no clue what constitutes dark energy. One thought is that its source are the virtual particles of vacuum. Another is a rudimentary theory of quintessence. The state of our knowledge of dark energy (as well as dark matter with an emphasis on axions) is the subject of the book Quintessence: the mystery of missing mass in the universe by Lawrence Maxwell Krauss. I will not discuss dark energy further here except to suggest that it may be a yet more spiritual realm than dark matter.

What I do discuss here is a conceptual model of how the cosmic axion field could be a medium of the paranormal. First a brief review of the relevant on-line paranormal literature is presented, including a Russian hypothetical theory that seemingly explains everything on the basis of axion-like particles. Experimental verification is also claimed.

The western literature associated with a hypothetical quantum model of human consciousness is also discussed, since any paranormal medium must be able to support consciousness. And finally I extend this model to the cosmic axion field and discuss possible coupling mechanisms between it and physical particles.

Please note that I am referring to the ordinary world of electrons and protons as the physical world. So I differentiate physical consciousness from axion consciousness.

However, this is just a matter of convenience as axions, if they exist, are really physical particles that experience the same wave/particle duality as physical particles like electrons and photons. I also use the most common interpretation of quantum mechanical wave/particle duality: that waves (or fields-same thing) are invisible; and that waves collapse into visible particles when detected; so that energy and information can be wavelike or particle like, but not both at the same time

Paranormal Theory on the Internet:

Before discussing this literature, I feel compelled to mention that the word ‘theory’ is misused here. A scientific theory is a full mathematical description of processes based on postulates, equations expressing its laws and solutions of the equations that can be verified experimentally. Nothing in the paranormal literature comes even close to being a theory except the work from Russia discussed below, which is based on mathematical physics and has predictions that might be verified experimentally.

A recent scientific conference to discuss “rational perspectives on the paranormal” is summarized on the site It sorts paranormal phenomena into three categories: non-paranormal phenomena that have physical explanations; mind-based phenomena (such as out-of-body(OBE) and near-death experiences(NDE), hypnosis and apparitions); and direct interaction (PSI) phenomena (such as clairvoyance( i.e., local and remote viewing), telepathy, and psyhcokinesis). I think the category ‘mind-based is misnamed as the included phenomena require a paranormal medium, whereas the direct interaction category contains mind-based phenomena. The intent of this article is to understand the medium in which apparitions exist, but it is the medium of other aspects of the paranormal, as well.

An alternative monistic approach is discussed by Peter Lloyd on the site The claim is that everything is mental rather than physical. However, saying that everything is one or the other does not make much difference in detail. It suggests that there exists a paradigm inadequacy and lists possible paradigms: the holographic paradigm; the cyberverse or infoverse paradigm; the non-linear or multi-continual time paradigm; and the multi-dimensional reality paradigm. It refers to these paradigms as vague metaphors. Actually I do not recognize them to be paradigms at all. In fact I see evidence that each of these alternative ‘mathematical’ approaches to the paranormal may have a place in a final theory.

The multi-dimensional approach has been summarized by Simon Harvey-Wilson on the site, and related to string theory, consciousness and various paranormal perspectives ( poltergeist activity; the spiritual; the Shamanistic; UFOs, as well as virtual reality-the cyberspace approach). The claim is that all paranormal phenomena comes from other dimensions. But since the mechanisms by which other dimensions become involved is not described, this is still more metaphor than model. My hypothetical model includes the possibility of higher compactified dimensions, as possible sources of the axions and their coupling to physical particles; but it is decidedly three dimensional and no extraordinary concepts are invoked except for the particles that are thought to exist in dark matter.

A discussion of the paranormal assuming a materialistic universe amenable to scientific understanding may be found at, including: clairvoyance, telepathy; psychokinesis, precognition, reincarnation; and spiritualism(channeling, i.e., communication with disembodied spirits). The claim is that quantum theory provides “a mechanism in which nonphysical entities as spirit (or indeed God) could exert their Will upon the physical universe by slightly shifting the probability distributions associated with individual quantum events”. However, there is no discussion of how that is accomplished. In this context, my hypothetical model does not offer an ‘active’ mechanism by which spiritual entities could alter the physical. What is offered is strong evidence of a medium in which they could exist and ‘passive’ coupling mechanisms between the two realms. The Russian theory also does not provide an active coupling mechanism. But the existence of apparitions that are detectable indicates that such an active coupling mechanism must exist.

Sonny Ayran on the site presents a rather comprehensive description of the various manifestations of ghosts. The claim is that ghosts are natural, physical and normal; and furthermore, that quantum field theory supports the existence of ghosts within its uncertainty principle. This ‘uncertainty principle’ mechanism may allow active coupling between the paranormal and the physical world, but it is an unlikely medium for ghosts. Rather, the axion superfluid provides a straightforward, understandable medium for their existence. On the other hand, Ayran’s descriptions of ghost manifestations as basically orbs (one inch diameter spheres containing a central matrix and two outer layers)- with less frequent appearances as vortices, mists, apparitions, audio ghost recordings, odors, cold chills and touching- is quite instructive. He correctly points out that ghosts must absorb physical energy (or my view, at least excite physical particles) requiring active coupling mechanisms to be detectable in the physical realm. He also refers to the existence of ghosts in a subspace which lies between the physical and a higher spiritual realm. That certainly reminded me of the three-fold universal categories of the physical, dark matter and dark energy.

Despite “The sheer volume of reports of paranormal phenomena provide strong evidence for the existence of a reality beyond the physical realm” (, my view is that the best evidence in support of a nonphysical realm is found in experimental investigations of mind-based remote viewing ( also called remote perception and anomalous cognition). The experiments conducted at Stanford Research Institute (see Putoff and Targ, Proc IEEE 64,1976) and later at SAIC, were funded by the CIA and DIA in response to similar work in the USSR. Rigorous scientific protocol was used and the results were positive, leading to medals of honor for a few well trained experts. Reportedly almost anyone could be trained to accomplish remote viewing. But expertise was needed to recognize objects from their internal structure, which is what is viewed with this technique.

A model to explain remote viewing is presented by former astronaut, Dr. Edgar Mitchell on based on the quantum hologram. Holograms can create 3 dimensional images for 2 dimensional data. This model is also used to explain Delawarr camera data by Mitchell, etal. on This camera obtains 3-D images from 2-D pictures of live and inert bodies. No external source of energy is required. In fact, all must be removed, except for the intention of the photographer, which implies the propagation of information in an undetectable medium from the photographer to the object, the inverse of remote viewing. The results are similar to MRI data. This experimental data suggests that all objects radiate detectable quantum fields. However, the detection ‘frequency’ must be selected like a radio station, and even more fantastically, the experimenters attention or intention must be focussed on the object. Double-blind or even blind experiments fail, and so the scientific validity is questionable.

The data is explained by a ‘quantum hologram model’ of the object and a ‘phase conjugate adaptive resonance(pcar)’ associated with the photographer. This is reminiscent of the adaptive optics field I used to work in. In fact, Mitchell claims that “the history of the object is carried in its quantum hologram” which implies that it is a space-time effect. This model should also apply to local viewing (touching, etc.) as used in dowsing and police investigations.

A theory of the above effects has been proposed by Russian researchers and is discussed on Boris Iskatov derived a mathematical quantum theory (from transformations of the Dirac and Schroedinger equations) of an information-energy field residing in a “global gas of microleptons” having several levels of particle masses between 10^-40 and 10^-30 grams. Axions predicted by GUT are about 10^-5 eV or 2x10^-38 grams, so that it is likely that the microleptons are actually the axions of dark matter. The equations of this theory can be solved to obtain the quantum hologram. Rather far reaching conclusions have also been obtained. Signals in this medium travel at the speed of light; but there are also weak pre- and post-signals that can travel much faster than the speed of light. There are also so-called (very weak) anti-signals that allow for the investigation of the past. I am not aware of a peer reviewed publication of this theory. So skepticism may be appropriate.

The experimental work of Russian Anatloy Ohatim is also reviewed on the above site. He claims to confirm the existence of the microlepton gas experimentally; and suggests that all information produced by the material world is embedded in the microlepton gas. This includes human thoughts, which are said to be propagated by the lightest particles. This information exists in the form of holograms and comes in units called “eidoses”. Ohatim discusses such effects as the half-life of eidoses (holograms) based on particle mass. Particles with less mass have longer lifetimes, in agreement with Penrose’s gravitational wave collapse hypothesis. Ohatim also discusses how humans influence the cosmos using good or bad eidoses. God and the soul are mentioned, as well as an instrument, the aurometer, for measuring these effects.

The Existence of a Paranormal Medium:

The investigations of remote viewing imply the existence of a supernatural medium in; the Russians claim to have detected it; and Russian theory indicates that it is an axion superfluid. But I believe the most relevant data for such a medium comes from out-of-body experience (OBE) and near-death experience(NDE), and after-death-experience(ADE)- religious phenomena. Unfortunately, there is little or no scientific data on ADE, NDE or OBE (formerly called ‘astral projection’ and more recently referred to as ‘consciousness projection’). OBE is not the same as remote viewing (RV). In RV the subject remains awake and very attentive to some remote object. The images obtained are shadowy and not easily recognized, being reflective of an internal structure. And anyone can be trained to perform RV.

Rather, OBE is an altered state of consciousness in which the subject appears to be unconscious (asleep), but the subject himself or herself feels awake, separated from his or her own body, and able to travel elsewhere. In this state, the environment appears distinct and reflective of external surfaces rather than internal structure. A very small percentage of the population, <1%, seem to have this ability, except perhaps in the state of dreaming. One claim is that we all have OBEs in the dream state.


A small amount of rather inconclusive OBE data is discussed by Charles Tart on the site But it contains an extensive bibliography of OBE literature. A significant omission in this bibliography is the work of Brazilian physician Waldo Vieira at the International Instiute of Projectology. This work is reviewed on The site discusses the origins of ghosts and how to heal them; and refers to Vieira’s book, Projection of Consciousness: a Diary of Out-of-Body Experiences, for more details as well as descriptions of 60 OBEs. However- fair warning- the site appears to be intended to sell his programs on consciousness development.

Theories of Consciousness:

A good summary of the various quantum theories of consciousness may be found at the site This summary is so extensive that I will not repeat it here except to note a typo. Froehlich’s work is given as published in 1986, when it actually was published in 1968, making it the original theory of consciousness.

The summery does not consider biochemical neuroscience theories, but they are not pertinent to the present discussion; nor is psychology considered Psychology considers consciousness to be fundamental to its science; but does not pretend to know its composition; whereas in sciences other than psychology, consciousness is at best secondary, and usually non-existent. In fact, there is still discussion regarding how consciousness should be defined. There are both quantum and classical aspects of consciousness, as well as visible and invisible components.

There is no present verification of any theory of consciousness. Yet we all know subjectively that it exists. So what is it? The inherent assumption in all the work described on this site is that quantum consciousness is required on the physical plane.

For example, Froehlich(1968) and later Marshall(1989) hypothesized that consciousness resides in the dipoles of membranes that when excited metabolically and electrically act collectively as a macroscopic BEC possessing quantum coherence. As summarized on the above site, Penrose and others have extended the same ideas to microtubules within neurons. In THE EMPEROR'S NEW MIND (Oxford Univ Press, 1989) and SHADOWS OF THE MIND (Oxford University Press, 1994), Penrose suggests that BECs exist in living organisms and that consciousness may be related to quantum wave function reduction (collapse) due to gravitational effects, or may even be related to Goedel’s Incompleteness Theorem. The supposition of course is that consciousness resides in the BEC. My view is that ‘self-consciousness’ requires a threshold of complexity as does Goedel’s theorem.

The Achilles Hell of all these hypotheses is that quantum consciousness on the physical plane requires a room temperature BEC. But BECs are only found in mediums at or near absolute zero. The field of quantum consciousness has not overcome this profound obstacle of requiring a room temperature Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). I offer an alternate hypothesis below.

An Alternate Model of Quantum Consciousness:

A model of consciousness may be based on the supposition that an axionic superfluid is the major component of Dark Matter. We assume that consciousness requires, as one of its components, a macroscopic quantum coherent medium, namely a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We also presume that BECs cannot exist at room temperature in the physical world of electrons and protons. So perhaps Dark Matter contains a BEC as one of its constituents. As stated above, the cosmic axionic field, if it exists, is both a local and cosmic BEC.

Astronomical observations of other spiral galaxies indicate that dark matter permeates and extends well beyond the visible galaxy. The mass of the axion, thought to be 10^-5 eV or about 2x10^-38 grams, is about one trillionth the mass of a proton; but about 10 trillion axions exist for every proton and neutron. So axions are expected to be a major component of dark matter; and the huge number of them indicates that the superfluid is local as well as cosmic. However, there is still a serious problem.

Human consciousness is physical. For sure the visible component of human consciousness is physical and not a quantum consciousness. (The dreamstate could be otherwise). If quantum consciousness exists in the axion superfluid, it must be invisible. So we are faced with the problem of how the invisible axion consciousness couples with the visible physical consciousness.

This is an unsolved problem. But it reminds us of the fundamental wave/particle duality of quantum theory. In one interpretation, both waves and particles exist, but at different times, with the invisible waves collapsing or reducing into visible particles, so that particles of different kinds can exchange energy and information. For example, eyesight involves the reduction of electromagnetic fields into photons that can interact with electrons on the Planck scale (where all particles are alike).

The hypothesis is then that axion waves couple into physical processes when they collapse into axion particles. Penrose has already suggested that as a basis of consciousness in a slightly different context, and the Penrose hypothesis is consistent with Ohatim’s measurements of microlepton half-life. Penrose and others have also suggested several physical processes that might be BEC capable at room temperature. We now presume that none are, but that some or one of these physical processes might be capable of coupling with axion particles. The Froehlich/Marshall hypothesis, where metabolic or electrical stimulation of membrane dipoles is required for physical consciousness, is preferred here, as it correlates with the human experience of going asleep and waking up.

But is there any reason to think that a non-physical world exists, other than it being a possible source of quantum consciousness. Our answer appeals to paranormal data.


The best available experimental data verifying the existence of a non-physical world with strong non-local effects that “couples” into the physical world comes from Stanford Research Institute and SAIC research of Remote Viewing sponsored by the CIA and other government agencies. It has been reported that anyone can be trained to perform Remote Viewing, but that expertise is required to recognize objects from their internal structure. Considerable (but much more subjective) data that requires the existence of coupled non-physical world and physical worlds is available from out-of-body experience (OBE), near-death experience(NDE) and after-death experience(ADE), e.g., religion.

Another source of such data that perhaps has been neglected is the experience of apparitions. Photographic evidence exists in this case where light is reflected from the apparition or the apparition is a source of light. This means that the apparition can couple energy into the physical, or at least guide energy already available in the physical world into its own being. For our purposes this is good evidence of an active coupling mechanism. Furthermore, from the evidence of Remote Viewing, it would seem the all physical processes couple into the axion medium, which then is like a shadow world of all physical processes that can also sustain quantum consciousness on microscopic, macroscopic and perhaps macrocosmic scales.

The key to my understanding of physical consciousness came from the requirement that Frohlich’s dipoles must be excited. That is, physical energy is needed for physical consciousness. Turn off the energy and you become unconsciousness- you fall asleep. Yet physical consciousness is probably not quantum consciousness. In the dream-state you still have some form of consciousness. I assume that the evidence of dreaming implies another state of consciousness, one that does not reside in arrays of dipoles. The axion gas or superfluid of dark matter is an obvious candidate. Moreover, axions satisfy the zero-point temperature requirement for a BEC. So my hypothesis is that your mind- your invisible quantum conscious mind resides in the axion medium- not in the physical medium. So the physical brain is a classical computer and the axion brain is a quantum computer. It would appear that the Russian work discussed above, which is not known to me in detail, has pre-empted this hypothesis.

Take your imagination for example. You can will yourself to visualize forms and objects. What I think is happening is that your ‘will’ collapses invisible quantum waves in your brain into axion particles that are visible but rather shadowy for most of us. Think the word triangle and you see a triangle in your mind’s eye. Words are the way your program the invisible quantum computer, and words also are the means of the audible(sublimated) classical computer reasoning of your imagination.

But occasionally you encounter a problem that you cannot solve. So you forget about it. But later on the solution comes to you in a flash. So the invisible quantum computer of your brain has been, as we say, unconsciously solving that problem; and the final solution is dumped into your visible (or audible) consciousness by collapse of the axion waves into axion particles that excite physical particles. This is my understanding of quantum consciousness as it relates to physical consciousness. In psychology, quantum consciousness is the unconscious state.


Briefly, if the BEC axion medium exists, it is the likely site of quantum consciousness. The fundamental postulate is that consciousness is of a quantum nature. Since room temperature BECs are not likely, our physical consciousness is not of a quantum nature, but is driven by the axion quantum consciousness. Words and will are used to collapse the invisible axion waves into visible arrays of axion particles that we perhaps see directly in the dream or OBE state; and which in turn can excite energized physical membrane dipoles in the awake state.

If so, the frictionless axion BEC permeates the galaxy, according to astronomical data, so that quantum conscious beings must possess considerable permanence and freedom in ADE (after death experience). Some unfortunate beings in ADE, commonly called ghosts or apparitions experience the permanence but not the freedom. I would view that problem as a form of mental illness, for example, based on attachment to materialism. So ghost healing should be possible. The fact that we can sometimes see and even photograph apparitions is very important to our understanding of the medium of the paranormal, for it is evidence of both active and passive coupling between the physical world and the paranormal medium. However, the nature of the coupling requires experimental research.

Richard Yannopoulos-Ruquist,
PhD Applied Physics Harvard 1966

Determining the Psychological State of the Applicant for Investigation

Determining the Psychological State of the Applicant for Investigation

A critical issue has been brought up involving the ever increasing
popularity and growing numbers of individuals who are offering their services
as paranormal investigators. There is so much more to it than just
identifying and documenting paranormal activity.
On the home page of my website, I take the time to make a clear distinction
between what I refer to as "field trips" and "investigations" If an
investigator chooses to be admitted into the privacy of someones home, they
have just accepted a huge responsibility (and liability, I might add ) and
will be expected by the persons involved to deal with the emotions, fear, and
confusion that can surround the home and family. This is a serious
undertaking that should not be pursued by the novice investigator without
available assistance (if necessary)from professionals in the field of family
counseling and psychology.Although I am not a psychologist, I have studied psychology in depth. It has
been very helpful in this field, and I just can't imagine someone conducting
these types of intrusions into peoples lives without at least someone on
staff available to help watch for emotionally charged situations which may
require professional assistance . I have professional psychological
associations, and individual certified guidance counselors, which I may
refer certain clients to regarding emotional issues detected during an
investigation.Many people who are experiencing genuine paranormal activity may be
depressed, afraid, confused and desperate for an explanation. They are
vulnerable. And likewise, we can unfortunately come across individuals who
are delusional, and suffering from mental illness. Symtoms of mental illness
can vary according to the origin and various stages of the illness, but we
need to be ready to deal with this occurance. It is a guarantee that sooner
or later it will happen to all investigators who are active in dealing with
the public.My first step of prevention in this area is to inform the individual at first
contact, that the first priority will be to visit with them in person and
conduct a private interview. I explain that the purpose of this interview is
to explore in depth the motivation and reasons for the needs of the family or
individuals in question.I take this early opportunity to explain to them the
implications of paranormal investigations, and discuss the aspects of
psychological considerations. I let them know, without pointing at them, that
all investigations are given carefull consideration in these areas. As a
result of this screening process,I can tell you that more than two thirds of
the interviews I conduct do NOT result in a subsequent investigation into
their lives and homes and into the phenomenon which they may be experiencing.One reason that a decision may be made to not investigate could well be a
noted mental instability of the person being interviewed. An investigator
should familiarize themselves with common symptoms of depression, phobias,
and irrational or abnormal and delusionary behavior. A further confusing
complication can be that an otherwise normal individual may be thrown off
balance by severe paranormal activity, and be showing considerable stress,
but not be ill.A more frequent reason may be that people just do not realize how invasive a
paranormal investigation can be. Most have not considered that frequently
spirits appear in people's lives because of personal indiscretions....moral
issues, crimes, abuse etc. I frequently uncover situations of abuse,
(physical and sexual), infidelity and other serious family issues in the
course of paranormal investigations.The investigator needs to be aware of the
potential for extremes of conflict in these areas.In one case, a male apparition was appearing to a couple's child at night and
trying to co-erce the child into leaving the house. Further questioning
produced information from dreams from other family members, leading to
further admissions, etc and soon it became evident that a deceased male from
a prior relationship, and a matter of deceit about fatherhood, became be a
part of this developing picture. Confronting the woman with my suspicion,she
admitted the current father was unaware that he was not the real father. This
woman had naively assumed that they simply had a ghost of the "Hollywood/TV"
variety in the house, and was shocked to find that there were issues
extending deep into moral and spiritual implications of their own lives.This
investigation could have clearly led to a devastating confrontation between
spouses.Thus the "official" investigation never happened..... as a result of the
interview only, it was decided to recommend counseling for the family, not a
paranormal investigation. I am certain that if the family issues are
resolved, the haunting phenomenon will go away.This is very common. The investigator must develop, (from study, experience,
and professional association with family guidance and counselors),their own
methods of screening potential cases, before delving into the privacy of the
home.In particular, I have found that EVP can be extremely revealing in some
family or home hauntings. Perhaps the entire "personal" spiritual connection
of many of these "so called hauntings" may be missed by those family members
involved. In fact, I find that spirits are frequently responsible for causing
disturbances over family indiscretions.

Not to slight the fact that hauntings and paranormal episodes do not have to
be directly associated with personal aspects of someones life. It's just that
it is important that we watch for that very common situation.....

Take the most important step....... to be aware of the importance of the
mental well being of the people whom you offer assistance. Experience,
caring,consideration and diligence will guide you. Keep up the good

-Rich from Paranormal Investigations of Texas

Exorcism of Demons - by Jason Hawes

Catholic Passages

Matthew 4:24: "...they brought unto him [Jesus] all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatick, and those that had the palsy..."
Matthew 8:16: "When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils..."
Matthew 8:28-34: "And when he [Jesus] was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce..." (KJV; devils are normally translated as demons in other Bible versions).
Matthew 9:32-33: "As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil."
Matthew 10:1: "And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease."
Matthew 12:22: "Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb..."
Matt 12:43-45: "When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none."
Matthew 15:22: "And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil."
Matthew 17:14-18: "There came to him a certain man, kneeling down to him, and saying, Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed...And Jesus rebuked the devil; "
Mark 1:23: "And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out..."
Mark 3:11: "And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried..."
Mark 3:22-26: "And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils."
Mark 5:2-20: "...there met him [Jesus] out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains: Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him. And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones."
Mark 6:7: "And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits;"
Mark 7:2: "For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet:"
Mark 9:17-25: "I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit; And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away:... and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming...[Jesus] rebuked the foul spirit..."
Mark 9:38: "...Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us..."
Mark 16:9: "...Jesus...appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils."
Mark 16:17: "And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils..."
Luke 4:33: "And in the synagogue there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice..."
Luke 4:41: "and devils also came out of many, crying out..."
Luke 8:2-3 "And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils, And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others..."
Luke 8:33: "Then went the devils out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked."
Luke 9:38-42: "...a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child. And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him....And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit..."
Luke 10:17: "And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name."
Luke 11:14: "And he [Jesus] was casting out a devil, and it was dumb..."
Luke 11:15: "But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the chief of the devils."
John 7:20-21: "The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?"
John 8:48-49: "Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?"
John 10:20: "And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him?"

A number of references relate to the final destiny of Satan and his demons. They are to be thrust into Hell, described as a lake of fire. In these passages, Satan's angels apparently refer to his demons:

Matthew 25:4: "Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels."
1 Peter 2:4: "For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment."
Jude 1:6: "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day."
Revelation 12:9: "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him."

Demons are also mentioned elsewhere in the Christian Scriptures:

Acts 19:13-16: "And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded."
James 2:19: "Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble."
Revelation 9:20: "And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk"
Various passages describe how Satan can adopt a spirit form, reside inside a person, and influence their thoughts and behavior in the same way as a demon can: Ephesians 2:2 describes him as a spirit who works within "the children of disobedience."
John 13:2 describes how Satan "put into" Judas Isariot's mind the decision to betray Jesus.
Acts 5:3 describes how Satan filled Ananias' heart with the decision to lie to the Holy Ghost about the proceeds of a real estate sale.

The Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament):
The King James Version of the Bible often used the term "devils" which some readers assume are Satan's demons. Other translations use "heathen gods," "idols," etc. In reality, they simply refer to the Gods worshiped by Pagan tribes (or the idols that represented those Gods):

Leviticus 17:7: "And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, [literally "hairy ones"] after whom they have gone a whoring."
Deuteronomy 32:17: "They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up..."
2 Chronicles 11:15: "And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the [statues of] calves which he had made."
Psalms 106:35-37: "But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. And they served their idols: which were a snare unto them. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils."

Evil spirits which cause mental disturbances are mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. But they were not dispatched or controlled by Satan; they were sent by God to torment people:

Judges 9:23: "Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem..."
1 Kings 22:23: "...behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets..."
1 Samuel 16:14: "But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him." (KJV)
1 Sam 18:10: "And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul..."
1 Sam 19:9: "And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul..."

We thank for this information.Please check out their site. It is a TAPS favorite for information.

Get to Know your Ghosts - by Jason Hawes

Get to Know your Ghosts - Residual Haunt

The most common style of a human haunting is a residual haunting. A residual haunting is like having an impression made in time. The entity may seem to be lost in a time warp. The spirit really isn't even there, only the energy is.

In most cases people may here screaming or crying due to the violence factor that may have caused this traumatic event to happen. People may also hear the sounds of footsteps walking on the stairs or through hallways.

Typically the repeated event is whatever the person who left the energy behind did often or an significant event that they remember happening to them. It is almost like it the energy has become part of the dwelling that they once occupied on an every day basis. These haunting styles always seem to happen in the same place every time.

There is usually very little you can do on this style of a haunting except make the family who is having these problems understand what is going on and explain to them that they are in no danger due to the energy not being controlled by the person who left it behind.

There is no actual entity present in this style of haunting, and the energy that was left behind is just like a video playing the same scene over and over again. Eventhough it is not aware that people are there, it can still be a scary and emotional situation to the people who have to deal with it happening in their home.

It may happen every night or every week or even every year. It is the most frequent haunting investigators will come across in their cases. An investigator will tell you there is nothing they can do about this style haunting and they are correct. People need to either except what happens and learn to deal with it, or move on.

Get to Know your Ghosts - Intelligent Haunt

In this style of haunting the entity or entities are aware of their surroundings. Most of the time you will find that these spirits are not confined to one spot, they can move around freely. Also, they will acknowledge the existence of human beings and even try to communicate in certain ways.

They are limited in what they can do. Most of the time they only move very light objects but they have been known to move objects up to around 10lbs. They are looking for people to notice them but they end up scaring people a great deal instead.

Usually, between the hours of 11pm and 4am are the times that the entities can more efficiently manifest themselves, due to this time period being the darkest hours of the night. Most of the time are not strong enough to show themselves during the daylight because it takes too much energy to make themselves visible. Think of it like this, if you were to turn on a flashlight during the daytime you would hardly notice the light, but if you were to turn it on in the dead of night, the light would be clearly visible. This is how spirits work as well. If they use too much energy during the day they will be too weak to show themselves at night.

These spirits can be benevolent or mischievous, depending on the reason that they are haunting a location, and there are several reasons. They may be haunting it because it was once their home and they want you to leave. They may be there because they've found that a child is able to see them so they feel noticed and are willing to stay around for this fact. There may be some kind of artifact that they are staying with and following due to some emotional bond with it. They also may be looking for something or someone. They may even not be willing to except that they have died. Whatever the reason may be, they are there and they do not want to leave.

Now comes the hard part, ridding a house of them. They are not inhuman entities which we will get to, so religious provocation will not be effective to rid the area they are in. You are, as they are, limited to what you can do.

Get to Know your Ghosts - Poltergeists

is from a German word meaning noisy spirits. Reports of poltergeists date back to Ancient Roman times.

The activity that takes place will start of with knocks and bangs, furniture starting to move around by itself. Then, the activity will become more intense, manifesting itself through voices and even the appearance of full apparitions. Furniture may slide across the room and beds may shake. Many shows are based on this is a style of haunting because it tends to be the most terrifying and rarest type of haunting that occurs.

Most of the time, in the case of a poltergeist, the haunting circles around a female in her teen years. Some of these cases seem to be caused by the female unknowingly controlling the energy around herself. Some cases happen around people that are stable and in the right mind space.

This haunting is hard to classify due to certain situations. No two are ever really the same. Most of the time you will find that one person in the household seems to be more affected by the haunting than anyone else. It may seem that most of the activity doesn't happen unless that certain person is present. Usually, the activity appears to stop when that person leaves the home. The majority of the time poltergeists are experienced by several people, but again they seem to center around one certain person. This person may be highly stressed as of late or maybe this person has gone through some type of extreme emotional situation. If this is the case, see that the individual involved gets some medical care, and soon afterwards the poltergeist will subside.

When it is not the teenager that is manifesting activity there are usually several spirits in the area. The spirits appear to pool their energy together in order to become strong enough to move larger objects and make more noises. In order to remedy the situation, you need to find the root of their anger so that they can pass over and leave you in peace. On most poltergeist cases they will disappear with out any warning, just as they appeared. Certain times it may stop within a few days, other times it may take years. You may never know the reason that it happened. Most people are just happy to see it go and that's enough for them.

By understanding why it was there in the first place helps you to understand how to keep it from ever coming back again. Knowledge is the key in protecting yourself in this world.

Get to Know your Ghosts - Demonic Haunt

Demons are one of the known inhuman entities out there. Fortunately, they are a rare occurrence.
They are usually very easy to identify as long as they are not hiding. When it is a demonic haunting you typically notice a revolting stench similar to rotted flesh or sulfuric acid. They often let loose a growl that sounds like it is coming from everywhere at once. They like to make contact by pushing, shoving, hitting, and even scratching. The whole air in the affected area will feel thick like fog and the temperature will drastically change, typically becoming warmer.

These creatures are very strong, unlike human spirits, and they don't mind showing it. There have been cases where people have been thrown through the air and even attacked. Apparently, their main goal is to break down a person's free will in order to make way for possession. This can take days, months or years, but time is of no concern to them.

They have a hatred for mankind that dates back to the days of God and Lucifer. They have lived for millennia and will be here long after we are gone. So, you must understand that though you may be able to get these creatures to leave a dwelling with religious provocation you will never destroy them. They could go to the next place down the road if they choose, most likely they won't because distance is not a problem for these creatures. They could go from Maine to California on a thought.

They can take on any form they wish, but mostly commonly it is a half man, half animal form. They will have the head of an animal, the torso of a man, and the hairy legs of an animal. When they are approached by an investigating paranormal team they may feel threatened and appear in a human form to keep the home from being blessed and stop the use of religious provocation.

During an investigation you need assess the situation more by what happened before you arrived than what is actually going on during the time you are there. Demons are capable of changing form right in front of you from a human form to an inhuman form. They neither male nor female, but then can change that to meet their needs. People mostly see demons as black masses standing in doorways or near rooms. Sometimes they are called shadow devils.

If you feel like you have a demon in your home I would recommend getting help from a well known paranormal group as quickly as possible. Time is of the essence when dealing with these creatures.

Jason (TAPS)

Getting Started - by Grant Wilson

Getting Started

Ok, I am drowning in the emails asking questions like:

"Grant, how do I get started in the field of paranormal research?"


"I am starting a group, man. You got any tips?"


"I toootally wanna b a ghost hunter. If U can tell me were 2 go 2 school 2 learn dat, dat wood be gr8."

So, I hope you will forgive me for not being able to take the time to reply to them all. I try to make time to help but the time-making skill is rapidly escaping me. Therefore, I must kill 326,456 birds with one preverbial stone.

Here's the stone:

1. A career?
Paranormal investigation doesn't pay squat. In fact it costs a lot. Equipment, gas, tapes, batteries, cool jackets with your group name on them, etc. So, don't expect to get into the field to get rich.

2. Schooling
If you want to take up paranormal investigation as a hobby, then go to school for something that can pay the bills, AND be of use in the paranormal research field. Forensic science, psychology, or construction are some good ones, along with maybe some computer, film, or, heck, even plumbing knowledge will give you the skills that will both, put food on the table, and make you valuable to your group.

3 . Grave Stomping
Sure it seems logical that ghosts would be found in graveyards.... I guess... but often people make the mistake of thinking that if a lot of people died in a location that there HAS to be ghosts. While that CAN be true it isn't a fact. Here's a question: How many people do you know that have actually died in a graveyard? Not many. Most people are dead for around 3 days before they are buried.

4 . Stay Legal
Most of the time, it is illegal for anyone to be in a cemetery after dark. And just because no one lives or works in a building, doesn't mean it is fair game for investigating. If you get caught trespassing, your time as a respectable paranormal investigator is over.

5 . How Do I Start?
Since graveyards are out, then how the heck do you get started? The best way is to find a friend or a relative of someone in your group that feels they might have a haunting. This is ideal because you can practice your techniques without having to worry about screwing up and upsetting a client. If this scenario is not available to you, then find another group in your area and see if they are willing to have you shadow them on a few investigations. If you do this, remember that it is THEIR case and you are just a fly on the wall. If THAT is not available then there are often public places that are known to be haunted where trespassing is not an issue. Also, there are some places that will allow you to take a "ghost tour" for a nominal fee. This is the last option though, as you often have to weed through a lot of oobie-doobie spookie nonsense, but at least you get the chance to try out your equipment.

6 . Equipment? What Do I Need?
Don't get blinded by the equipment you see us using on the show. All you really need to get started is a camcorder with nightshot or infrared. An additionl infrared illuminator that attaches to the top of the camera will help out greatly.
An audio recorder of any type will help too. Make sure that if you get an analog recorder (one that uses a tape) that you also purchase an external mic. Otherwise you'll get some nasty noise from the gears in the machine.

What? No EMF detector? Nope, that can wait. EMF detectors don't find ghosts. They find false positives. We scan areas that claim to produce spooky feelings with an EMF detector in order to find a legitimate electromagnetic field. Fields with a really high reading can produce effects in people that mimic paranormal activity. For instance, paranoia, dizziness, nausea, and that general creeped-out-I-don't-wanna-go-in-there feeling.

Aaaaand no still camera? Camera's are great and all, but claiming you have paranormal activity caught in one still photo is like reading one paragraph of a book and pretending you know the whole story. You just don't know what led up to that picture being taken.

7 . Pick Me!!
How do you get your name out there? Well, most importantly, by doing a friggin good job. If you are professional and down-to-earth your name will spread fast enough. Other than that, make a well thought out web site. One that is professional, not filled with bloody fonts, creepy music and flaming skulls flying at you. Think about it, if you were genuinely terrified in your home and you needed help, do you think you'd be comforted by a barrage of flaming skulls?

8 . Salt, Lots of Salt
Don't believe everything you hear. There is very little fact in this field. It is populated primarily with theories. Face it, you can't recreate this stuff in a lab, yet. So, you have to study it when you can, and that is not often.

Therefore, there really aren't any experts. There are a lot of people who will claim they are experts, but that is another story. We just can't guarantee that there is one person who is doing it 100% correctly. In other words, gather information from where ever you can, filter through your own ideas and ideals, take the good and leave the bad. And take it all with, not a grain, but a huge friggin' block of salt.

Well, there you have it. Some decent tips to get you started in the field of paranormal investigation. I hope they help you out.

Rock on, and please do everyone, who is already out there investigating, proud.

-Grant (TAPS)

Ghosts...Why are they Here - by Rick Bugera of BCPA

Ghosts...Why Are They Here?

What exactly is a ghost?

Before you can understand what an entity consists of you need to understand a
bit about the human body of the living person. Everything you do, see, hear, taste, feel, etc. Is controlled by electrical impulses sent to your brain
from your body's different parts or from your brain to your different body parts.

For example... right now you are reading this webpage, an electrical impulse is
going from your eyes to your brain carrying the information your eyes are seeing. As you scroll down this page your brain is sending electrical impulses to your hand to move your mouse, etc...

When a person dies their individual systems shut down independently, your kidneys fail, then your respitory system shuts down, then your heart stops beating and finally your brain stops functioning. Since all these systems are controlled by electrical impulses the electricity has to go somewhere. It is a general law of physics that
energy can not be destroyed, so where does the energy go when your body shuts down? It is released into the atmosphere!

When a person dies a slow or natural death the energy is released more slowly and in a less concentrated state than if a person were to die a sudden or violent death. This is why I believe hospitals are not the most haunted places even though more deaths occur in them then anywhere else.

Another theory I have been tossing around for some time now is what makes certain locations more likely to have a ghost than others. I believe it all boils down to
electromagnetic fields trapping the energy that is released at time of death.

For example...Everyone has heard of at least one haunted theatre in the area they live. Theatres are huge electromagnetic fields, they have high voltage electrical systems in them to support the sound and lighting equipment that is used for their shows. Theatres used to be very dangerous places to work at one time, it was very easy to have a lighting rig fall down on someone and kill them, it was also easy for someone to fall from a catwalk that is high above the stage. The ingredients were all
there for a sudden and violent death. When that occurred from time to time the energy that was released from the victim's body was trapped by the much stronger electromagnetic field and you now have a ghost.

One of the tools we use for paranormal research is an EMF meter. These meters are designed to measure changes in electromagnetic energy. Many times while investigating a haunting we have discovered very high levels of electromagnetic energy present. Alot of times this is caused by high voltage electrical systems or by old wiring. Both will create an electromagnetic field.

There is a strong possibility that despite the theories of some other researchers it is not the ghost that causes the electromagnetic energy, it is the electromagnetic
energy that causes the ghost.

- Rick (BCPA)

Give Me Some Proof - by Grant Wilson

Part 1
Catching them on Film

Ghost Hunting/Investigating, as we know it, is an attempt to understand and prove the existence of paranormal beings, powers or intelligence. Understanding it isn't that hard, but providing evidence can be more than difficult.

Photos that claim to have captured the image of a supernatural being are among the most scrutinized evidence out there. (short of maybe UFO pictures or maybe even photos from the OJ Simpson case) The simple fact is, ghosts tend to appear as mists, orbs or other vaguely distinguishable forms which, unfortunately closely mimic very natural, very earthly circumstances. And so they are easily debunked.

So, how do you get people to believe you? Take some very deliberate precautions.

1. The first and foremost rule a ghost hunter should follow is, "Be Skeptic" Just because you see a shiny orb in the woods through your night vision video camera, don't think you've caught a ghost. Try and think of what earthly item it could be. Ask yourself questions like; "Is it moving or standing still?" "Does it show up in every photo I take?" "Is there ANYTHING that might have caused a reflection?". If you ask these type of questions, you'll catch your own "hoaxes" before they are debunked by someone else hence ruining your credibility.

2. "2 or More Witnesses" Even in the legal systems, two or more witnesses will always outweigh what one person claims to be the truth. If you can say "There were eight of us there and no one saw the figure in this image." chances are people will believe you. Especially when they interview the other seven people and get the same story.

3. "Never Smoke" on a case that is. If you can say, with confidence every time, that no one was smoking or had been smoking, you rule out 98% of skeptics' excuses for "mist" type pictures. In the case of cold weather cases, let everyone around you know you are about to take a picture, then have everyone hold their breath for at least five seconds (if not ten) before you snap it. If you make a habit out of this, then you'll know for sure that you didn't catch anyone's breath on film. (It should be said that it is quite easy to distinguish cigarette smoke or human breath from ethereal mists.)

4. "Surprise Them" Take the ghost by surprise. Some ghost want to be caught on film, some don't care, others don't want to be caught at all. Because we don't know the ghosts' feelings about this, there is only one way to pretty much guarantee that you'll catch it on film. This is by casually snapping a picture, over your shoulder even, whenever you get the inkling to. It may sound silly but it works. Trust me. There's no need to line up a perfect shot, as long as there is a ghost in it, no one cares if it's not "framed" right.

5. "Trust your Feelings" Learning to trust your feelings can yield astounding results. If you get even the slightest urge to snap a picture somewhere, Do IT! Don't hesitate. Most often pictures taken like this will be the only ones that show results.

6. "Get a Digital Camera" Ok, so this isn't a "rule" but a personal suggestion. Number one, you don't need to worry about film. Number two, you get instant gratification. There's nothing quite like knowing exactly where these things were just a few seconds earlier. Number three, you can instantly email them to TAPS so everyone can see what you've found!

Hopefully, these tips will help increase the amount of specters you catch on film, and therefore increase your desire to continue looking for and learning about the paranormal.

Part 2
Recording Their Voices

Some of the creepiest evidence of paranormal activity are EVP's or "Electronic Voice Phenomena". This is the mysterious and often disturbing act of capturing the voices of spirits on an audio tape.

Much like photos of the paranormal, there are hundreds of examples of EVP's to scrutinize. They range from unrecognizable groans and mumbles to three hour long conversations.

Many scientists have studied this phenomenon and have not been able to explain it. I can't explain it other than this is yet another way for spirits to communicate with us. Frankly, I don't care how it works, I just know that it does and here is not only how to do it, but how to remain credible at the same time.

How do you do it?

Set down your recorder and relax. Settle down into your chair and get comfortable. Clear your mind and just sit still for a few minutes. You can say some sort of prayer if you feel like it, but it doesn't seem to affect the outcome at all.

Turn on some kind of background noise. Keep it pretty low, you don't want it to overpower the recording. Some suggestions are white noise (you know that fuzz you get when there's nothing on the TV or a particular radio station.), running water or even a vacuum cleaner. Anything that will give you a steady stream of jumble.

This may sound wierd but the spirits have a hard time creating any sound that makes sense. This is why people usually hear moans or groans. This takes a lot of energy to do. The background noise allows them to piece together sounds from the static to more easily form words. Plus, the recorders are more sensative than our ears. So, essentially, we are making it easier for them to talk.

Ok, now that you're comfortable and you've got some noise going, you can either just sit there, you can leave and see what turns up later or, you can start asking questions. Be sure to ask simple straight forward questions such as, "What is your name?". And don't forget to leave a long pause between questions so that the spirit has time to answer. Give them about three times as long as you would give a living person to answer.

When you're done with the recording, politely thank the spirit if you want to, once again this has no effect on the outcome of the recording. Then you can go home and listen to it.

How do you remain credible?

Just doing a few simple things can save you a lot of grief when trying to prove your recording.

Unplug anything you don't need to do the EVP. Almost everything that can be plugged in will make noise that will turn up on your tape, possibly fooling you into believing it is a ghost.

WHILE THE TAPE IS RECORDING, do the following:

When you first get to where you want to record, make every sound possible that could be mistaken for a spirit. Cough, breathe, scoot around, etc.

Next, have someone go into all of the surrounding rooms and talk at various volumes. Also, have them bang on the walls etc.

Announce that you are done with your comparative noises and begin your EVP.

Some general rules to follow when creating an EVP:

Don't use a crappy little recorder.
Try to use something better. This isn't always possible. Even a portable stereo has better recording capabilities than a walkman sized unit.

Use an external microphone.
Any unit, no matter how nice it is, will put off somekind of internal sound that will be picked up by the microphone. Stear clear of using the microphone that is mounted on the actual unit or you'll pick up the gears inside the unit that are moving the tape. This kind of interferance makes it VERY difficult to make out the voices.

Spend the extra two bucks and buy some high-quality tapes.
Remember, this is what holds the valuable recordings. The better the tape, the clearer the sound.

Don't whisper.
When you talk or ask questions speak loudly and clearly. Don't speak directly into the microphone because when you play back the tape you'll most likely have the volume cranked up so that you can hear every little sound. If you come cranking over the speaker at 50,000 decibles, your chances of ever hearing anything else again are slim.

Ask simple questions.
Don't ask "How often did you think about going to your mother's house, and if it was often which days did you not do it?"

Use some background noise. (If you prefer)
Running water, white noise, vacuum cleaner... just make sure it doesn't dominate the recording. Remember, it's called BACKGROUND noise. This will help to "raise the sound floor" or allow for easier filtering.
Get comfortable.
The less noise YOU make the better.

Respect the dead.
Be courteous to the spirits. Thank them for their help and try to help them once you've heard what they have to say. Don't immediately ask if they know they are dead, etc. Try to keep in mind the time period in which they lived when asking the questions. Someone from the 1600's won't know what a "recorder" or a "camera" are.

Most of all, try and do it where there is spiritual activity, this will always increase your odds. Good luck, and happy hunting!


Good or Evil - by Grant Wilson

Good or Evil?

One of the first questions people ask themselves when they are confronted with paranormal activity is "Is it good or evil?". Subconciously and often too frequently the answer they give themselves is "Of course it's evil, it just slammed a door!!"

This is usually an unfounded and biased decision based on dozens of scary movies, ghost stories around the fire and society's general lack of knowledge on the subject. Just because it's ghostly does not mean it's evil.

First off, typically you'll be confronted by what we call a "human spirit". This is the spirit of someone who was once alive, as you and I are alive. They were born on earth, they had a job, most likely a family, a dog, and most importantly, they died. For various reasons they are still hanging around. Now, because they were once alive they each have different personalities as you and I do. So, these spirits can be good or bad BUT NOT NECESSARILY EVIL.
Fortunately the majority of us tend to be rather decent folks, but not all of us. The same goes for spirits. One spirit could have been a loving grandmother who is looking for her husband, or one could be a teen-aged punk who may be getting a kick out of scaring you.

Then there are the not-so-common type of spirits we call "non-human spirits". This is a spirit that never lived on the earth and is ALWAYS bad news and generally dangerous. The disturbing thing is that this type of spirit is brought to our realm through people who are meddling where they shouldn't. (ouija boards, seances, curses, devil worship, etc.)

Now that we know that there are only two general types and we know their mentalities, we can better identify them. Here's a quick breakdown:

Typical Human Spirit Activity:
- noises
- appearance of seemingly random objects (flashlights, rocks, money)
- an illuminated figure or part of a figure

Typical Non-Human Spirit Activity:
- whispering Voices - black shadowy figures
- violent acts against you (being hit, thrown, etc.)
- targeted paranormal activity (ie: you hate clowns, so the spirit moves the clown from room to room. You get the idea)

These are not all of the things to look for, but some of the most obvious signs to help you identify what type of spirit you're dealing with.

If you've got a non-human spirit, GET OUT and call TAPS asap.

- Grant (TAPS)

Guarding Against Skepticism - by Steve Gonsalves of NEP

Guarding Against Skepticism

You spend a lot of time doing the research, finding the evidence, and showing your evidence to the public. All this time spent just to hear someone say "That's not real" or "That just looks like smoke". This person we all love is known as a skeptic. The skeptic could be another research group, the media, or it could be your friend who you are showing your
latest research to. Skeptic is such an evil word for some, but it doesn't have to
be that way. Not if you research, collect, and present your evidence properly.

Be your own skeptic, don't believe it until you see it. Collecting your evidence could be the most important part of your research. Most common evidence collected are photographs and videos. We will focus mostly on photographs. When taking pictures, we all know to make sure it's not raining, no dust in the air, no camera straps, no smoking on the premises
and no breathing in cold weather.

I would like to go over a few things that can be very beneficial to your investigations. The first thing you should know about is coupling. Coupling is using other tools in conjunction with your photographs. For instance, you could use an EMF gauge in conjunction with your photography. Most people do this anyway, but a lot of researchers don't and most new investigators
don't know any better. This way you could present your evidence as, "Everytime my EMF gauge spikes a reading that supports paranormal phenomena, I capture this smoke like mist on film". That is a much better way to present evidence then, "Look at the strange mist in these pictures". The EMF gauge offers a scientific backing for your evidence. The same would work with thermal probes or any of the paranormal adapted technology we use.

Next, I'd like to talk about control pictures. These are pictures of a non-paranormal nature on the same roll of film with pictures of a paranormal nature. What this does is stops people from assuming it is something wrong with the whole roll of film. For example, say you are investigating a case where a woman knows where the activity is, and can tell it's in the same
room as her. You take a few pictures in the area she says it is, and also take a few pictures in the same area when she says it's not there. This way, when you present these pictures as evidence you can say, "When she said the 'entity' was present we took these pictures with the fog like mist. When she said the 'entity' was gone, we took these control pictures we took came out clear of the fog like mist". So we have control pictures validating our paranormal pictures. It can also be used as easily as taking pictures outside of the investigation location to use as control pictures. So you can present them as, "In the location we have these pictures with the fog like mist, we took these control pictures outside of the investigation location and all of these pictures are free from the fog like mist".

One other thing I want to address is the lingo we use when talking about our research, and more importantly presenting our evidence. Try to stay away from words that may cast a negative shadow on our research. Words such as "ghostbuster", "ectoplasm" and "psychic". Not that these things don't exist, it's just that these words and words like them reflect negatively on our
research. Ectoplasm was a substance that used to exude from the mouths of early century mediums. Come to find out it was just cheesecloth they would swallow and regurgitate at the climax of their session. Also the Ghostbusters movie made ectoplasm seem like a made up word. Try to use phrases like mysterious fog, strange mist, or even ectoplasm-like mist
instead of ectoplasm.. You'll find that if you use words like ectoplasm, psychic and ghostbuster, people will have a harder time taking you seriously. Of course there is a lot more to making and keeping your reputation healthy, but using simple tips like these it will be a lot
easier to present your evidence to skeptics.

Steve Gonsalves


The Demon Cat of Capitol Hill - by Al Tyas of DCMAG

The Demon Cat of Capitol Hill
By Al Tyas, Director, DCMAG

Washington DC has many ghost stories, but none are as intriguing as the infamous Demon Cat. If you’re unfamiliar with the legend, the phantom cat lurks in the shadows of the Capitol crypt ready to spring out on unsuspecting victims. The cat comes around the corner looking like a small black cat, but rapidly grows right in front of the victim’s eyes. The eyes glow yellow, and suddenly the cat springs on its hapless victim who passes out instantly. Then it’s simply gone. The cat appears right before a tragedy, or a change in office.

But how credible is this story? As a researcher on Capitol Hill who was done extensive research on this topic (probably more than anyone in this area) I can give only one account that may have been the cat. I work with a man who, outside some congressional buildings, claims to have seen a black cat that looked like a kitten then grew to an adult cat. The cat cried like it was hurt. He followed the cat to the back of a congressional building, and it ran off from sight. The next thing my co-worker knew he was grabbed by two Capitol policemen for getting too close to a congressional building while Congress was in session. He swore up and down he was looking for an injured cat. No one else saw it. That’s my first hand account of the Demon Cat.

I have interviewed several Capitol Police, and the Capitol Architect as well as many docents. They will tell you the same story: One time the Capitol had tons of cats they used as mousers, and one walked over wet cement. The cat prints are still there. The cats are long gone, and basically that’s the cat history. NO ONE else has seen this cat recently.

Think about it. We have a disastrous Presidential election, two policemen shot and killed, 911, and now a war. There’s no sign of this alleged cat. Either no one is talking, but, most likely it doesn’t exist. The employees at the Capitol aren’t talking, and security is tighter than ever. DCMAG respects the employees and congress and will not intervene with the security of this building nor “snoop around” either. Personally out of respect to Congress as well as my colleagues on Capitol Hill I feel it unnecessary.

Perhaps well hear of this cat when the war is over and we’re safe again. But for now, the cat will remain in the crypt. The Capitol staff really isn’t interested in dispelling myths at this point. If you want to hear about the REAL ghosts of the Capitol, check out! I spoke with SEVERAL workers at the Capitol, and very much believe their stories….none of which have anything to do with a cat.

-Al Tyas

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